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Thursday, January 7, 2010

Perro de Presa Canario

History of the Perro de Presa Canario

“El Presa Canario”

Manuel Martin Bethencort
(short version)
The Early Dogs of Islands
The domestic animals in the Canarian Archipelago before it was conquered by Castilian Crown,were part of the Aboriginal culture of the inhabitants of the islands.The dog was part of that culture and had many functions.They were used to watch and herd the goats and sheep,which were an important part of the economy for the natives:they were also used as a defence against the many raids made by invading forces,to guard property or consumed as food,in many cases and were a mythic and religious symbol.For a mainly pastoral people as were the natives of the islands,the dog was a fundamental element in the economy.
There are a number of references to the dog,and to the goat,the pig and the ship in popular folklore and in the writings of the various authors mentioning the small,wild dogs,wolf-like in appearance “but smaller” ,which were primitive and lives with their natives.There are references to this primitive dog describing it is a medium sized animal of some similarity with Australian Dingo,and to others,also medium-sized,but of better build and wider forehead.

Various authors reached the conclusion that there were two types of dogs which were different,especially in size,one was small and stocky and the other was bigger in size and had a wider head.
The invaders and conquerors that came succesively to the islands found the native dogs to be ardent,brave animals of great stamina.These dogs in the islands were the basis of the crossbreeding which start later with the introduction of differents breeds by the Spanish colonizers.
We can say that the most valuable historical reference is that made by F.E.Zeuner in his work: “Some Domesticated Animals from the Prehistoric Site of Guayadeque,Gran Canaria”,where he refers a medium-sized animal,with a wider head,which brings to mind something molosser in appearance ad,in a way,a “gripping” type of dog.
In the centuries following the conquest of the Canaries and in particular the 16th and 17th,various breeds of dog,gun dogs,bulldogs and sheepdogs were,of course brought into the islands along with other domesticated animals.The references in these records are of great value,althought they do not describe the morphology of the dog,they do name each dog in acordance with it`s function:dogs are used for hunting,to watch and herd livestock and as guard dogs-specifying in these cases their condition as a “gripping or seizing dogs” which proves their existence indisputably since the time of the conquest.

Historical News of the Existence of the Dogo in the Canary Islands
From the through out 16th century and according to the “Cedularios del Cabildo de Tenerife”,we would like to underline the following:
In the agreement with the Island Government of Tenerife,as from 5th February,1516,butchers will be allowed to have,at their service, a pair of “gripping dogs”,like two trained dogs,property of Don Pedro de Lugo,to get rid of dogs gone wild,in view of the damage done to livestock herds,as has been seen in areas of Adeje and Abona.
The Island Government reiterates,on 5th January,1526,that,by agreement and in view of the damage done the livestock herds by large “gripping” dogs,these dogs should be killed,and that only livestock owners,may keep these dogs in their service,and with the exception of those dogs used by Don Pedro de Lugo,who had enjoyed the privilege for many years of eliminating those dogs gone wild.
On 25th August,1617,Island Government allows,any person,without risk of punishment,to kill all “gripping” dogs,owned by neighbours,and which are loose and unchained,to avoid damage to livestock.
We cannot therefore,establish a hypothesis about the breed and variety reffered to as these “gripped” dogs,nor experiment nor speculate about whether it is one type or another.Neither can we check in drawings from the references listed,whether these dogs in the Canaries fitted the description of the particular kind of Mastiff,Dogo or Alano,but it seems evident thet they were extremely useful animals for the inhabitants of islands,whose economy,essentially peasant and rural,was based not only on agriculture,but also on livestock of seasonal pasturage,and later on cattle used for plowing,so important to cereal growers.
English influence
Once the slow,hard conquest of the archipelago was over, the dividing up and allotting of land started at the same time as colonists began arriving from mainland Spain and many other parts of Europe during 17th and 18th century.The process of settling the islands had barely begun when the Canary Islands became an almost obligatori stopover for Spanish ships sailing to America from the ports of Cadiz and Seville.The inclusion of the archipelago in shipping routes and it`s being a colonial settlement would mark its future,as very soon it would draw pioneers from many parts.

The srategic position of Canarian Islands in the Alantic was vital to Spanish ships en route to America,was also a priority for Duch,and more especially,English corsairs.Relations with England were established quite soon and many English traders settled in the islands from early on,from where they exported local crops and imported all kinds of manufectured goods.
The large British colony was based mainly on Gran Canaria and Tenerife.They brought their culture,their possessions,animals to guard their property,their pets,customs and traditions.
Looking back into the rich history of English cinophyles,we find that in that country dogs were bred for all their uses:as guard dogs,gun dogs,herd dogs and as pets,and that,from an early times,great care was taken with the training of the dogs to fight other dogs and other animals,such as bears,bulls,lions and badgers.
In the first centuries after the Spanish conquest of the Islands, the English dog considered the archetypal fighter was caled the Old English Bulldog,which was a medium sized,compact animal with a powerfull build and with the all requirements for relentless pursuit.
This dog had inherited the best of traditional bandage and of the Spanish “gripping” dogs,also known as the Spanish Bulldog,which was sometimes used to liven the blood of the English dogs.This kind of dog,which was ideal as a guard dog,was part of English environment at the Canaries.Later,moving on in time of the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century,another kind of the fighting dog appeared in England as a result of crossing Old English Buldog and the Old English Terrier,and which was called the bull and terrier.The result of this cross was smaller in size lighter,faster and hot-tempered.
The bull and terrier was the basis of all the fighting breeds,known as pit dogs,such as Pit Bull Terrier,Staffordshire Bull Terrier and the white Bull Terrier.All of these dogs which were medium or small in size,of strong constitution and easy to transport were brought to the Canaries to fullfil the requirements of the English colony.
The appearance of these emerging Eglish breeds led to inevitable crossbreeding with “gripping” type dogs already existing on the islands, in view of the fact that the archipelago was isolated,and scarcely inhabited.
At the same time as the “ gripping”dogs we have already spoken about,on the Canaries there had always been a dog used to herd goats in particular,and which was commonly bred on the island of Fuerteventura.Later,it spread to the other islands,where it was named and is still knowm as “majorero”or Dog of Fuerteventura after the island of its origin.It had a brindle-striped coat,was coarse and incorruptible character.
The crosses between “gripping dogs” and “majoreros” produced a medium sized animal,which was coarse and hard working,and which was known in the country as dog of the land-Perro de la Tierra.
The `Dogo Canario` and the Legend
In the early years of 20th century,we have dog of the land-Perro de la Tierra crossbreed with the English bull and terrier dogs,product of the bulldog and its variations.The blend had benefitial consequences of the morphologycal-structural aspects of the “gripping” dog and improved its condition as such.As there has no clear concept of the breed,people were only concerned with its functional qualities and so,there was not enough genetic control and the appearance of the population become heterogeneous in time.
We came across speciments that were very `bulldog` in appearance,stocky,compact,short in the face and whose coats often have large areas of white.Others are longer in the body,slimmer,with more of the `majorero` ,emphasized by the stripe-brindle coats across the range,longer,more wiry and rougher hair.Still others,with less genetic variability,where both bloodlines are equaly represented,producing medium-sized speciments,which are large,but not excessively so,longer in the body and often brindle coated,but with white paws and collars.
In the first thirty years or so of this century,dog fighting was legal in this country and was very common practice in the islands,but once forbidden,as a result of the Spanish Civil War in 1936,they became even more popular,albeit clandestinely,and this prohibition caused the population of the “gripping” dog to fall drastically.
The fights took place in the country or in urban areas of very low cultural level,and never matched the more sporting or sophisticated events brought to the islands by the English. They were not dark,murky spectacles,despite being hard,nor were they sinister or malicious on account of the betting,which was really almost non-existent.
The built of its adversaries contributed a great deal to this reduced situation.The “gripping” dog of the Canarian Islands is a multifunctional dog,it is not essentially `gladiator`,i.e. the bull instinct of its ancestors,that made the dog fights to the very end,is not so deeply etched on its genes.The Canarian Dogo always tries to get a good grip with the bite and will try to improve it and hold tight for a long time,which reminds us of the old bulldog.This is why the English crossed this dog to achieve combats with more action,more blood and which would last longer.
It was in the first half of this century when the Canarian Dogo became really widespread,when its prestige as a dog of great courage crossed our frontiers as a result of the trend in the Canaries to emigrate,especially to South America.

Istorija Perro de Presa Canario

Psi Aboridžina na Kanarskim Ostrvima

Nekada mirna,udaljena od Evrope i ostatka sveta,jos neistražena Kanarska Ostrva,naseljavali su samo stari narod Aboridžini.Još od tih davnih vremena,Kan. Ostrva bila su blisko vezana sa psima koji su ih naseljavali,toliko,da je naziv ostrva potekao od reči `Cano` što znači pas-odnosno ostrvo pasa, i deo su istorije.Psi su bili sastavni deo Aboridžinske kulture i njihovog života uopšte,pomagali su svojim vlasnicima u čuvanju stada ovaca i koza,da brane posede od najezde divljih zivotinja, bili su njihov mitski i religijski simbol.

Prema prvim zapisima,zaključujemo da su postojala dva tipa ovih primitivnih pasa.Podsećali su na vukove ali su bili nešto sitnije građe.Prvi tip je bio vrlo sličan Australijskom Dingu,a drugi- iste visine,ali šireg,jačeg tela i veće,jače glave.
Miran period na Kan.Ostrvima prekida se dolaskom Španskih osvajača koji stižu u 15.veku i vrlo brzo naseljavaju ova područja.Iz svoje matične zemlje donose mnogo toga novog i neobičnog za ove prvobitne,da ne kažemo i prilično primitivne stanovnike arhipelaga. Sa sobom dovode,pored domaćih životinja i svoje pse,tj. razne španske rase .Koristili su ih za različite namene,bilo je lovnih,ovčarskih pasa,zatim pasa za čuvanje stada i poseda.Španci su svoje pse nazivali jednim zajedničkim imenom,zbog određene karakteristike koju su svi posedovali,a to je da su bili dobri `hvatači`,znali su vrlo spretno da zgrabe i ščepaju plen. Po tome su ih nazivali “gripping”(drzač,hvatač) ili seizing (stegnuti,ščepati) psi.

Tokom vremena dolazilo je do mešanja i ukrštanja gore pomenutih domorodačkih pasa sa pridošlim španskim varijetetima,što je dovelo do stvaranja pasa sa vrlo oštrim i agresivnim osobinama.Ovi psi,nastali raznoraznim neplanskim ukrštanjima,bili su prilično agresivni,skoro poludivlji,nanosili su velike štete seljanima time što su napadali i ubijali stoku na imanjima,što je stvaralo velike probleme i morao se pronaći način na koji će se ovi psi obuzdavati i držati pod kontrolom.
Njihova pomoć pri čuvanju stoke je bila velika ali su morali biti pod budnim okom gospodara.

Istorijski zapisi vezani za pse na Kanarskim Ostrvima

Sporazumom Španske Vlade na ostrvu Tenerife iz 1515.godine,kao i tokom narednih godina,zabranjuje se njihovo slobodno kretanje i daje se za pravo svakom čoveku ,bez ikakvih zakonskih obaveza da ubije psa koji nije vezan ili zatvoren.Mogli su ih čuvati samo ljudi na svojim farmama krava ili svinja,ali vezane na lancu,jer su bili odlični u čuvanju i naterivanju stoke .Mesari su takođe imali dozvolu za njihovo čuvanje,bili su im potrebni, iz istih razloga.
Veleposednik pod imenom Don Pedro de Lugo je bio zaštitnik i ljubitelj ovih pasa i godinama ih je čuvao na svom imanju,čak mu je bilo dozvoljeno da ih pušta na divlje pse koji su takođe morali biti istrebljeni sa tih područja zbog štete koju su nanosili stanovništvu,u svakom pogledu.
Po crtežima i zapisima iz tog vremena ,došli smo do zaključka da su psi pripadali tipu Mastifa,Dogo ili Alano.

Engleski uticaj

Početkom 18.veka naseljavanje Kanarskih Ostrva se nastavlja,pored Španaca koji su prvi doseljenici,dolaze i ostali evropski narodi,a među njima i Englezi koji su se prvenstveno bavili trgovinom, ali i poljoprivredom.Prenosili su robu i proizvode između svoje matične zemlje i ove kolonije.
Velika Britanska kolonija stvorena je na ostrvima Gran Canaria i Tenerife,razlikovala se u mnogo čemu po svojim običajima,religiji i kulturi od naseobina domorodačkog stanovništva.Naselja su bila vrlo organizovana,arhitektonski vrlo lepa,uređena,posedi su bili veliki.Osim trgovinom,razvijali su i poljoprivredu i bavili se zemljoradnjom.
Sa sobom su donosili iz Britanije sve što ih je podsećalo na domovinu i što im je koristilo na novoj zemlji.Osim domaćih životinja,koje su bile osnova svakog domaćinstva,dovodili su i svoje pse,koji su im bili velika pomoć na novoj,jos neistraženoj teritoriji.
Proučavajući bogatu istoriju engleskih ljubitelja pasa,saznajemo da su sa kolonistima pristizali psi odgajani za razne potrebe engleskog stanovništva:da čuvaju posede,da verno prate svoje gospodare u lovu ,da čuvaju stada stoke, a neki su bili isključivo kućni ljubimci.Od ranih vremena, poznato je da su Englezi trenirali pse i za borbe,kako među sobom tako i za borbe sa drugim životinjama-kao što se spominje u mnogim zapisima iz tog vremena,sa lavom,jazavcem,bikom.

U prvim vekovima,nakon španskog osvajanja ostrva,engleskog psa je u njegovoj osnovi,karakteru i izgledu predstavljao stari borac pod imenom Engleski Buldog. To je bio pas srednje veličine,sa masivnom i snažnom glavom,jakom vilicom zahvaljujući kojoj su njegovi ugrizi bili vrlo efektni i opasni,kompaktne građe tela,širokih grudi,mišićavih nogu,okretan,brz-sa svim preduslovima za nemilosrdno gonjenje.
Ovaj pas je ukrštan sa “gripping” psima koji su na ostrvu postojali od ranije i koje su nazivali Španski Buldog,njih smo u gornjem tekstu već opisali.
Krajem 18. i početkom 19.veka,druga vrsta borbenog psa se pojavila u Engleskoj kao rezultat ukrštanja starog Engleskog Buldoga i starog Engleskog Terijera,nazvan je bull i terrier.Taj pas je bio manji,svetliji,brži,veoma temperamentan i samim tim prilagođeniji za borbe.
Bull i terrier je baza za sve borbene rase,poznatije kao PIT psi:Pit Bull Terrier,Stafordski Bull Terrier i Beli Bull Terrier.
Bili su srednje ili male građe,jake konstitucije,jednostavni za transport i doneti su na Kanarska Ostrva da upotpune zahteve engleske kolonije-da čuvaju njihove domove i posede,zemlju i fabrike,ali takođe i da učestvuju u lovu i borbama pasa (koje su na Ostrva Englezi i prvi ustanovili).

`Presa Canario` i legenda…

Osim “gripping” pasa,na Kanarskim Ostrvima su živeli i opstali i psi koji su oduvek korišćeni kao ovčarski psi,gonili su i čuvali stoku.Istorija i priča vezana za njih je vrlo duga i utkana u živote ljudi sa ostrva.
Potiču sa ostrva Fuerteventura,ali su se vremenom raširili po svim ostrvima ovog divnog arhipelaga.Poznati su pod imenom Perro de Ganado Majorero ili Bardino Majorero.Imali su karakterističnu tigrastu boju dlake,bili su robusni,snažni,vrlo pokretljivi i sa nepokolebljivim karakterom.

Ukrštanjem “gripping” i “majorero” pasa ,dobijeni su psi srednje veličine,robusni i grubi,kombinovanjem osobina obe rase dobili smo psa radnog karaktera,nešto pitomijeg,privrženog čoveku - psa sa kojim se moglo dobro sarađivati,jednom rečju-radnog psa. Nazivali su ih `psi zemlje`-Perros de la Tierra.
Konačno,u ovoj priči o nastanku današnjih pasa rase nazvane Perro de Presa Canario ,dolazimo do ukrštanja pasa Perro de la Tierra i Engleskog Bull i Terrier-a.
Nakon svih ovih,mnogobrojnih kombinacija,nije moglo biti tačnog koncepta rase,ljudi su samo vodili računa o funkcionalnim kvalitetima,ali nedovoljna geneticka kontrola dovodi do toga da spoljašnji izgled psa bude veoma različit.
Neki psi su ličili na buldoge,bili su zdepasti,kompaktni,kratkog lika,sa velikim površinama bele boje na telu.Drugi su imali duže telo,mršavije,sa više `majorera` u sebi,izražene šarene (tigraste),kratke ali gušće dlake.Treći tip pasa je bio nešto krupnije građe,sa manje genetičkih varijacija,obe krvne linije su bile ravnomernije `raspoređene`,bili su tigraste dlake sa belinama na šapama i grudima.

Što se tiče karaktera ovih pasa,nastalih ukrštanjima domorodačkih,španskih i engleskih rasa,nisu bili predodređeni samo za lov i borbe,već kao što smo i napominjali do sada u tekstu,čuvali su i nagonili stoku,branili i čuvali posede i zemlju svojih gospodara.Nije više bilo u njima nekontrolisane agresivnosti,kao kod prethodnih pasa sa ovih područja ,zabeleženih od 15.veka,pa nadalje,sve do kraja 19.veka.
Početkom 30-tih godina 20.veka,na Kanarskim Ostrvima bile su dozvoljene borbe pasa i bile su dosta često održavane.Ubrzo zatim,za vreme Španskog Građanskog rata 1936.godine ,borbe bivaju zakonom zabranjene,ali uprkos tome ,interes za njih nije jenjavao,održavale su se tajno u narednih par godina.
Bile su čisto zabavnog karaktera,da se odmere snage među psima,klađenje gotovo da nije ni postojalo.Nedugo zatim,ovaj vid zabave postajao je sve ređi i ređi,da je gotovo i iščezao.

Pas sa Kanarskih Ostrva je imao mnogo funkcija i svojih osobenosti, ali moramo naglasiti da nije bio klasičan`gladiator`.Želju za borbom,nasleđenu od svojih bull predaka (kada se pas bori do samog kraja),nije imao duboko urezanu u svojim genima.
Kanarski pas znao je dobro da uhvati protivnika,imao je dobar ugriz,držao ga neko vreme,što nas podseća na starog Engleskog Buldoga.Ljubiteljima borbenih pasa nedostajalo je više borbenosti,srčanosti,više akcije i krvoločnosti,a želeli su i da borbe traju mnogo duže.Iz svih ovih razloga,Kanarski psi bili su ukrštani sa Pit-rasama.
70-tih godina 20.veka,odgajivači nastavljaju dalje sa `nadogradnjom` ili `obogaćivanjem` rase Perro de Presa Canario i dodaju strane rase kao sto su: Napuljski mastif,Nemačka Doga,Engleski Mastif,Bordoška Doga ,Rodezijski Ridžbek,Fila Brazilero,Rotvajler, itd.
Sve ove,do sada pomenute rase,pasmine i varijeteti učestvovali su u formiranju pasa koji danas postoje.Sa Kanarskih Ostrva raseljeni su i ima ih po čitavom svetu.

Tokom druge polovine 20.veka,selektivnim uzgojem i sa određenim namerama,stvorene su dve linije pasa : Perro de Presa Canario i Dogo Canario.
Podelu u današnje vreme podstiču i odgajivači i kinoloske sudije na `izložbene pse` i `radne pse`,iako jos uvek pripadaju istoj FCI grupi i isti standard je određen za sve njih.

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